On Relationships Between Fixation Identification Algorithms and Fractal Box Counting Methods.

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TitleOn Relationships Between Fixation Identification Algorithms and Fractal Box Counting Methods.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsWang, Q, Kim, E, Chawarska, K, Scassellati, B, Zucker, S, Shic, F
JournalProc Eye Track Res Appl Symp
Volume2014
Pagination67-74
Date Published2014 Mar
Abstract

Fixation identification algorithms facilitate data comprehension and provide analytical convenience in eye-tracking analysis. However, current fixation algorithms for eye-tracking analysis are heavily dependent on parameter choices, leading to instabilities in results and incompleteness in reporting. This work examines the nature of human scanning patterns during complex scene viewing. We show that standard implementations of the commonly used distance-dispersion algorithm for fixation identification are functionally equivalent to greedy spatiotemporal tiling. We show that modeling the number of fixations as a function of tiling size leads to a measure of fractal dimensionality through box counting. We apply this technique to examine scale-free gaze behaviors in toddlers and adults looking at images of faces and blocks, as well as large number of adults looking at movies or static images. The distributional aspects of the number of fixations may suggest a fractal structure to gaze patterns in free scanning and imply that the incompleteness of standard algorithms may be due to the scale-free behaviors of the underlying scanning distributions. We discuss the nature of this hypothesis, its limitations, and offer directions for future work.

DOI10.1145/2578153.2578161
Alternate JournalProc Eye Track Res Appl Symp
PubMed ID26504903
PubMed Central IDPMC4618633
Grant ListU54 MH066494 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
UL1 RR024139 / RR / NCRR NIH HHS / United States
R03 MH092618 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
R01 MH100182 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
P01 HD003008 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
R01 MH087554 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
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